Assessing the Constructs of Leader-Follower Theory and the Cultural Context of the Interaction between Jesus, Jewish Elders and the Centurion of Luke 7.

In the opening texture of Luke 7:1 we find Jesus entering Capernaum which is located on the northern edge of the Sea of Galilee. During this time, “the headquarters of the Roman army in Judea was located in Caesarea, on the Mediterranean coast.”[1] Centurions, as in this case, were occasionally assigned to provinces under special assignments. History indicates that Roman centurions were of similar rank to a Captain and “often of the humblest origin; he had been promoted from the ranks simply on account of bravery and military efficiency.”[2] While the Romans ruled over the Jews, the centurion knew that it “would be inappropriate and disrespectful for him to approach Jesus and make a request.”[3] Despite the cultural divide, in verses 2 through 5 we learn that this centurion is well respected by the religious community and is a big donor to the synagogue. Understanding the social station the centurion maintains we are better able to analyze the interaction between Jesus, the Jewish elders, and the centurion.

Leadership is a “process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective.”[4] The centurion under Roman law had the authority to influence those around him by whatever means he chose. “So when he heard about Jesus, he sent elders of the Jews to Him, pleading with Him to come and heal his servant.”[5]

Followership is made of “those individuals towards whom leadership is directed.”[6] The Jewish elders who normally argue with Jesus showed another side as they take on the follower role in their approach to Jesus. As the centurion and Jewish elders work together, we find a leader-follower system at work, which implies that there are “two or more persons working together.”[7] The elders “begged Him earnestly, saying that the one for whom He should do this was deserving. For he loves our nation, and has built us a synagogue.”[8] The centurion and the elders are “relational partners who play complementary roles.”[9] It is through the elders that the centurion, “an officer of an unwelcome Gentile occupying force, approach a Galilean wonderworker”[10] to secure such a favor. “From this perspective, the relationship between leaders and followers becomes reciprocal and interdependent.”[11] The elders do this “for the centurion, adding the character witness that the centurion will be a worthy recipient of favor.”[12] The elders recognize all that the centurion has done for the religious community and the centurion calls in a favor.

Entering the middle texture of the text, Jesus takes on the role of follower when he agrees to go see the centurion. “But just before they arrived at the house, the officer sent some friends to say, “Lord, don’t trouble Yourself, for I am not worthy that You should enter under my roof.”[13] We find an interesting dynamic as we compare the texture between verse 3 and verse 6. In verse 3 we see a leader who is “used to issuing commands, the centurion phrased the message bluntly: Come (erchamai) ! Cure! (diasōzō)”[14] Yet, in verse 6 we conversely find a more humble centurion who sends his trusted friends to greet Jesus before he reaches the centurions home. Here the Inner Texture Analysis of Argumentative Texture and Patterns is employed. Argumentative Texture “investigates multiple kinds of inner reasoning in the discourse.”[15] The Argumentative Texture and Pattern between verse 3 and verse 6 help to clarify the centurions understanding of his position by presenting “assertions and supports them with reasons, clarifies them through opposites and contraries, and possibly presents short or elaborate counterarguments.”[16] When the centurion’s friends approach Jesus they “called Jesus kurios, a Greek word that can mean ‘sir,’ ‘lord over the servants,’ or ‘Lord over heaven and earth.”[17] The centurion, now through his friends, maintains a follower’s role through “his great humility, and being conscious to himself of his unworthiness to have such a person under his roof.”[18] “Therefore I did not even think myself worthy to come to You. But say the word, and my servant will be healed.”[19] The centurion simply asks Jesus to delegate His authority so that his servant is healed. The centurion knows that great authority does not have to be present for action to be taken. “Just as this officer did not need to be present to have his orders carried out, so Jesus didn’t need to be present to heal.”[20]

In verse 8 the centurion explains leader-follower theory. “For I also am a man placed under authority, having soldiers under me. And I say to one, ‘Go,’ and he goes; and to another, ‘Come,’ and he comes; and to my servant, ‘Do this,’ and he does it.”[21] He had the clear understanding that under his superiors he was a follower, yet also a leader over his soldiers. By this the centurion was familiar with “all the principles of obedience.”[22] The centurion would have also acknowledged Jewish laws and customs that “it was not lawful for a Jew to go into the house of an uncircumcised Gentile.”[23] The centurion understood that Jesus was a man of great authority and that a “person in authority has the power to delegate authority to accomplish his purpose.”[24] In a contemporary setting a manager would delegate authority to her staff to accomplish goals and objectives. The manager expects the staff to take on a leader role to accomplish those tasks. Each person in the process “is acting on orders both laterally and from above. And with the responsibility to fulfill the order also comes the authority to accomplish it by whatever authorized means are necessary.”[25] As the centurion recognized Jesus’ authority to act from a distance, contemporary leaders need not always be present for delegation of authority to take place. Tools such as email, telephone, verbal directives, memorandums, and letters can all be used to delegate authority to accomplish organization goals. Additionally the chain of command is a powerful line for delegation. The board of directors as leaders charge the company CEO as the leader/follower to action, the CEO as leader passes the authority to a regional Vice-President and so forth.

The closing texture of text presents a centurion who views Jesus as much a leader as himself. We note that leadership is “not so much about position, but about their ability to influence through behaviors and self-concepts.”[26] “The centurion’s insight is that Jesus’ delegated word of authority can span distance. He has power in the spirit world to speak a word and his word is accomplished.”[27] The story of the centurion illustrates that “leadership and followership are traits in which, at any one time, leaders assume followers’ role and followers assume leadership roles.”[28] From this we know that the “combination of two or more persons working together implies the leader-follower scheme exists”.[29] Luke 7 further illustrates the need to consider cultural context in which the leader-followers operate. In Luke 7 we find a leader who has great authority to do as he pleases, yet understands the cultural significance of a Jewish leader entering his home.

Much can be learned from the humble centurion and the leader-follower theory presented in his story. The leader-follower model presented is an excellent illustration of contemporary manager as leader-follower and is transferrable across organizational and cultural lines. The Gentile was leader of the Jews yet became a follower of the Jews. Likewise, the Jews were following the Gentile but also lead over him. With respect to cultural differences, the centurion was able to effectively lead and follow without having to give up his authority. Jesus and the Jewish elders were able to lead and follow without having to break from Jewish law or their respective roles.


Notes

[1]. Bible History, “Roman Centurion.” http://www.bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/roman-centurion.html (accessed June 16, 2010)

[2]. Roman Colosseum, “The Role of the Roman Centurion.” http://www.roman-colosseum.info/roman-army/roman-centurion.html (accessed June 16, 2010)

[3]. Mark Driscoll, “Luke’s Gospel: Investigating the Man Who is God Part 26: Jesus Heals the Centurion’s Servant Luke 7:1-10” (Mars Hill Church, May 2, 2010).

[4]. Peter G. Northouse, Leadership, Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 2001), 3.

[5]. Luke 7:3 (New King James Version)

[6]. Northouse, 3

[7]. John Pitron, “Followership is Leadership: The Leadership-Exemplary Followership Exchange Model.” Version 8. Knol. (August 16, 2008). http://knol.google.com/k/dr-john-pitron/followership-is-leadership/12nb17zejmb1w/2 (accessed May 16, 2010)

[8]. Luke 7:4-5 (New King James Version)

[9]. Michael Z. Hackman and Craig E. Johnson, Leadership A Communication Perspective. (Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, Inc. 2000), 17.

[10]. David A. DeSilva, An Introduction to the New Testament. (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2004), 336.

[11]. Gilbert and Matviuk, “Empirical Research: The Symbiotic Nature of the Leader-Follower Relationship and it’s Impact on Organizational Effectiveness.” Academic Leadership.The Online Journal. Vol 6: Iss 4 (Oct 9, 2008) http://www.academicleadership.org/emprical_research/The_Symbiotic_Nature_of_the_Leader-Follower_relationship_and_Its_Impact_on_Organizational_Effectiveness_printer.shtml (accessed June 20, 2010)

[12]. DeSilva, An Introduction to the New Testament, 336.

[13]. Luke 7:6 (New King James Version)

[14]. Trent C Butler, Holman New Testament Commentary on Luke. (Nashville, TN: Broadman and Holman Publishers, 2000), 104.

[15]. Vernon K. Robbins, Exploring the Texture of Texts. A Guide to Socio-Rhetorical Interpretation. (Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, 1996), 21.

[16]. Robbins, Exploring the Texture of Texts, 21

[17]. Butler, Holman New Testament Commentary on Luke, 104

[18]. Commentary on Luke 7:6 http://www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/gills-exposition-of-the-bible/luke-7-6.html (accessed June 15, 2010)

[19]. Luke 7:7 (New King James Version)

[20]. New American Standard Bible, “Life Application Study Bible.” (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2000), 1752.

[21]. Luke 7:8 (New King James Version)

[22]. The Four Fold Gospel – Healing the Centurions Servant. http://www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/the-fourfold-gospel/by-sections/healing-the-centurions-servant.html (accessed June 15, 2010)

[23]. Commentary on Luke 7:6. http://www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/gills-exposition-of-the-bible/luke-7-6.html (accessed June 15, 2010)

[24]. Ralph F. Wilson, A Man with Authority (Luke 7:1-10). http://www.jesuswalk.com/lessons/7_1-10.htm (accessed June 15, 2010).

[25]. Wilson,”A Man with Authority (Luke 7:1-10)”

[26]. Gilbert and Matviuk, “Empirical Research: The Symbiotic Nature of the Leader-Follower Relationship and it’s Impact on Organizational Effectiveness.”

[27]. Wilson,”A Man with Authority (Luke 7:1-10)”

[28]. Gilbert and Matviuk, “Empirical Research: The Symbiotic Nature of the Leader-Follower Relationship and it’s Impact on Organizational Effectiveness.”

[29]. Pitron, “Followership is Leadership: he Leadership-Exemplary Followership Exchange Model.”

Bibliography

Bible History. Roman Centurion. http://www.bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/roman- centurion.html (accessed June 16,2010).

Butler, Trent C. Holman New Testament Commentary on Luke. Nashville, TN: Broadman and Holman Publishers, 2000.

“Commentary on Luke 7:6” Bible Study Tools. http://www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/gills-exposition-of-the-bible/luke-7-6.html (accessed June 15, 2010).

DeSilva, David A. An Introduction to the New Testament. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2004.

Driscoll, Mark. “Sermon on Luke’s Gospel: Investigating the Man Who is God Part 26: Jesus Heals the Centurion’s Servant.” May 2, 2010.

Gilbert and Matviuk. “Empirical Research: The Symbiotic Nature of the Leader-Follower Relationship and It’s Impact on Organizational Effectiveness.” Academic Leadership. The Online Journal. Vol 6: Iss 4 (October 9, 2008). http://www.academicleadership.org/emprical_research/The_Symbiotic_Nature_of_the_Leadership-Follower_relationship_and_its_impact_on_Organizational_Effectiveness_printer.html (accessed June 20, 2010).

Hackman, Michael Z. and Craig E. Johnson. Leadership A Communication Perspective. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, Inc., 2000.

Holy Bible: The New King James Version. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1988.

Northouse, Peter. Leadership, Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 2001.

Pitron, John. “Followership is Leadership: The Leadership-Exemplary Followership Exchange Model.” Version 8. (August 16, 2008). http://knol.google.com/k/dr-john-pitron/followership-is-leadership/12nb17zejmb1w/2 (accessed May 16, 2010).

Robbins, Vernon K. Exploring the Texture of Texts. A Guide to Socio-Rhetorical Interpretation. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, 1996.

Roman Colosseum. The Role of the Roman Centurion. http://www.roman-colosseum.info/roman-arm/roman-centurion.html (accessed on June 16, 2010).

“The Four-Fold Gospel – Healing the Centurions Servant.” Bible Study Tools. http://www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/the-fourfold-gospel/be-sections/healing-the-centurions-servant.html (accessed June 15, 2010).

Wilson, Ralph F. A Man with Authority (Luke 7:1-10). http://www.jesuswalk.com/lessons/7_1-10.htm (accessed June 15, 2010).

——————–

Philip A Foster, MA is a professional life and leadership coach with Maximum Change Inc.
He works with leaders to develop their purpose, life balance and achieve greater success. Encouraging leaders to take active and consistent steps toward reaching goals and objectives. Specializing in Organization and Strategic Leadership.

Email | LinkedIn | Facebook | Twitter | Web | Blog | Skype: philip.a.foster | (615) 216-5667

Assessing the Constructs of Leader-Follower Theory and the Cultural Context of

the Interaction between Jesus, Jewish Elders and the Centurion of Luke 7.

Philip A. Foster

425 N Thompson Lane, No 71

Murfreesboro TN, 37129

615-216-5667 phone

615-216-0552 fax

philip@maximumchange.com

LDSL 701

Dr. Gary Oster

June 27, 2010

Abstract

This paper explores the constructs of leader-follower theory through the interaction between Jesus, Jewish elders and the centurion as found in Luke 7:1-10. Through the use of Inner Texture Analysis of Socio-Rhetorical Criticism, the cultural context of interaction between Jews and Gentiles and its contemporary application to the leader-follower model are presented. This study employs the use of argumentative and open-middle-closing textures and patterns of Inner Texture Analysis. Though culturally the centurion was a governmental hēgemōn and could demand by any means necessary anything of anyone, he acknowledges cultural attributes and the authority of Jesus. The centurion demonstrates the traits of a follower as he seeks healing for his servant. Further the symbiotic nature of the leader-follower is present, not just between Jesus and the centurion but also with the Jewish elders as they approach Jesus on behalf of the centurion despite their ongoing conflict with His teachings. We will find that the application of leader-follower theory, as represented in this story, is applicable to present day interactions between leaders and followers of differing levels of authority and cultural affiliation.


In the opening texture of Luke 7:1 we find Jesus entering Capernaum which is located on the northern edge of the Sea of Galilee. During this time, “the headquarters of the Roman army in Judea was located in Caesarea, on the Mediterranean coast.”[1] Centurions, as in this case, were occasionally assigned to provinces under special assignments. History indicates that Roman centurions were of similar rank to a Captain and “often of the humblest origin; he had been promoted from the ranks simply on account of bravery and military efficiency.”[2] While the Romans ruled over the Jews, the centurion knew that it “would be inappropriate and disrespectful for him to approach Jesus and make a request.”[3] Despite the cultural divide, in verses 2 through 5 we learn that this centurion is well respected by the religious community and is a big donor to the synagogue. Understanding the social station the centurion maintains we are better able to analyze the interaction between Jesus, the Jewish elders, and the centurion.

Leadership is a “process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective.”[4] The centurion under Roman law had the authority to influence those around him by whatever means he chose. “So when he heard about Jesus, he sent elders of the Jews to Him, pleading with Him to come and heal his servant.”[5]

Followership is made of “those individuals towards whom leadership is directed.”[6] The Jewish elders who normally argue with Jesus showed another side as they take on the follower role in their approach to Jesus. As the centurion and Jewish elders work together, we find a leader-follower system at work, which implies that there are “two or more persons working together.”[7] The elders “begged Him earnestly, saying that the one for whom He should do this was deserving. For he loves our nation, and has built us a synagogue.”[8] The centurion and the elders are “relational partners who play complementary roles.”[9] It is through the elders that the centurion, “an officer of an unwelcome Gentile occupying force, approach a Galilean wonderworker”[10] to secure such a favor. “From this perspective, the relationship between leaders and followers becomes reciprocal and interdependent.”[11] The elders do this “for the centurion, adding the character witness that the centurion will be a worthy recipient of favor.”[12] The elders recognize all that the centurion has done for the religious community and the centurion calls in a favor.

Entering the middle texture of the text, Jesus takes on the role of follower when he agrees to go see the centurion. “But just before they arrived at the house, the officer sent some friends to say, “Lord, don’t trouble Yourself, for I am not worthy that You should enter under my roof.”[13] We find an interesting dynamic as we compare the texture between verse 3 and verse 6. In verse 3 we see a leader who is “used to issuing commands, the centurion phrased the message bluntly: Come (erchamai) ! Cure! (diasōzō)”[14] Yet, in verse 6 we conversely find a more humble centurion who sends his trusted friends to greet Jesus before he reaches the centurions home. Here the Inner Texture Analysis of Argumentative Texture and Patterns is employed. Argumentative Texture “investigates multiple kinds of inner reasoning in the discourse.”[15] The Argumentative Texture and Pattern between verse 3 and verse 6 help to clarify the centurions understanding of his position by presenting “assertions and supports them with reasons, clarifies them through opposites and contraries, and possibly presents short or elaborate counterarguments.”[16] When the centurion’s friends approach Jesus they “called Jesus kurios, a Greek word that can mean ‘sir,’ ‘lord over the servants,’ or ‘Lord over heaven and earth.”[17] The centurion, now through his friends, maintains a follower’s role through “his great humility, and being conscious to himself of his unworthiness to have such a person under his roof.”[18] Therefore I did not even think myself worthy to come to You. But say the word, and my servant will be healed.”[19] The centurion simply asks Jesus to delegate His authority so that his servant is healed. The centurion knows that great authority does not have to be present for action to be taken. “Just as this officer did not need to be present to have his orders carried out, so Jesus didn’t need to be present to heal.”[20]

In verse 8 the centurion explains leader-follower theory. “For I also am a man placed under authority, having soldiers under me. And I say to one, ‘Go,’ and he goes; and to another, ‘Come,’ and he comes; and to my servant, ‘Do this,’ and he does it.”[21] He had the clear understanding that under his superiors he was a follower, yet also a leader over his soldiers. By this the centurion was familiar with “all the principles of obedience.”[22] The centurion would have also acknowledged Jewish laws and customs that “it was not lawful for a Jew to go into the house of an uncircumcised Gentile.”[23] The centurion understood that Jesus was a man of great authority and that a “person in authority has the power to delegate authority to accomplish his purpose.”[24] In a contemporary setting a manager would delegate authority to her staff to accomplish goals and objectives. The manager expects the staff to take on a leader role to accomplish those tasks. Each person in the process “is acting on orders both laterally and from above. And with the responsibility to fulfill the order also comes the authority to accomplish it by whatever authorized means are necessary.”[25] As the centurion recognized Jesus’ authority to act from a distance, contemporary leaders need not always be present for delegation of authority to take place. Tools such as email, telephone, verbal directives, memorandums, and letters can all be used to delegate authority to accomplish organization goals. Additionally the chain of command is a powerful line for delegation. The board of directors as leaders charge the company CEO as the leader/follower to action, the CEO as leader passes the authority to a regional Vice-President and so forth.

The closing texture of text presents a centurion who views Jesus as much a leader as himself. We note that leadership is “not so much about position, but about their ability to influence through behaviors and self-concepts.”[26] “The centurion’s insight is that Jesus’ delegated word of authority can span distance. He has power in the spirit world to speak a word and his word is accomplished.”[27] The story of the centurion illustrates that “leadership and followership are traits in which, at any one time, leaders assume followers’ role and followers assume leadership roles.”[28] From this we know that the “combination of two or more persons working together implies the leader-follower scheme exists”.[29] Luke 7 further illustrates the need to consider cultural context in which the leader-followers operate. In Luke 7 we find a leader who has great authority to do as he pleases, yet understands the cultural significance of a Jewish leader entering his home.

Much can be learned from the humble centurion and the leader-follower theory presented in his story. The leader-follower model presented is an excellent illustration of contemporary manager as leader-follower and is transferrable across organizational and cultural lines. The Gentile was leader of the Jews yet became a follower of the Jews. Likewise, the Jews were following the Gentile but also lead over him. With respect to cultural differences, the centurion was able to effectively lead and follow without having to give up his authority. Jesus and the Jewish elders were able to lead and follow without having to break from Jewish law or their respective roles.



Notes

[1]. Bible History, “Roman Centurion.” http://www.bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/roman-centurion.html (accessed June 16, 2010)

[2]. Roman Colosseum, “The Role of the Roman Centurion.” http://www.roman-colosseum.info/roman-army/roman-centurion.html (accessed June 16, 2010)

[3]. Mark Driscoll, “Luke’s Gospel: Investigating the Man Who is God Part 26: Jesus Heals the Centurion’s Servant Luke 7:1-10” (Mars Hill Church, May 2, 2010).

[4]. Peter G. Northouse, Leadership, Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 2001), 3.

[5]. Luke 7:3 (New King James Version)

[6]. Northouse, 3

[7]. John Pitron, “Followership is Leadership: The Leadership-Exemplary Followership Exchange Model.” Version 8. Knol. (August 16, 2008). http://knol.google.com/k/dr-john-pitron/followership-is-leadership/12nb17zejmb1w/2 (accessed May 16, 2010)

[8]. Luke 7:4-5 (New King James Version)

[9]. Michael Z. Hackman and Craig E. Johnson, Leadership A Communication Perspective. (Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, Inc. 2000), 17.

[10]. David A. DeSilva, An Introduction to the New Testament. (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2004), 336.

[11]. Gilbert and Matviuk, “Empirical Research: The Symbiotic Nature of the Leader-Follower Relationship and it’s Impact on Organizational Effectiveness.” Academic Leadership.The Online Journal. Vol 6: Iss 4 (Oct 9, 2008) http://www.academicleadership.org/emprical_research/The_Symbiotic_Nature_of_the_Leader-Follower_relationship_and_Its_Impact_on_Organizational_Effectiveness_printer.shtml (accessed June 20, 2010)

[12]. DeSilva, An Introduction to the New Testament, 336.

[13]. Luke 7:6 (New King James Version)

[14]. Trent C Butler, Holman New Testament Commentary on Luke. (Nashville, TN: Broadman and Holman Publishers, 2000), 104.

[15]. Vernon K. Robbins, Exploring the Texture of Texts. A Guide to Socio-Rhetorical Interpretation. (Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, 1996), 21.

[16]. Robbins, Exploring the Texture of Texts, 21

[17]. Butler, Holman New Testament Commentary on Luke, 104

[19]. Luke 7:7 (New King James Version)

[20]. New American Standard Bible, “Life Application Study Bible.” (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2000), 1752.

[21]. Luke 7:8 (New King James Version)

[22]. The Four Fold Gospel – Healing the Centurions Servant. http://www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/the-fourfold-gospel/by-sections/healing-the-centurions-servant.html (accessed June 15, 2010)

[24]. Ralph F. Wilson, A Man with Authority (Luke 7:1-10). http://www.jesuswalk.com/lessons/7_1-10.htm (accessed June 15, 2010).

[25]. Wilson,”A Man with Authority (Luke 7:1-10)”

[26]. Gilbert and Matviuk, “Empirical Research: The Symbiotic Nature of the Leader-Follower Relationship and it’s Impact on Organizational Effectiveness.”

[27]. Wilson,”A Man with Authority (Luke 7:1-10)”

[28]. Gilbert and Matviuk, “Empirical Research: The Symbiotic Nature of the Leader-Follower Relationship and it’s Impact on Organizational Effectiveness.”

[29]. Pitron, “Followership is Leadership: he Leadership-Exemplary Followership Exchange Model.”

Bibliography

Bible History. Roman Centurion. http://www.bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/roman- centurion.html (accessed June 16,2010).

Butler, Trent C. Holman New Testament Commentary on Luke. Nashville, TN: Broadman and Holman Publishers, 2000.

“Commentary on Luke 7:6” Bible Study Tools. http://www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/gills-exposition-of-the-bible/luke-7-6.html (accessed June 15, 2010).

DeSilva, David A. An Introduction to the New Testament. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2004.

Driscoll, Mark. “Sermon on Luke’s Gospel: Investigating the Man Who is God Part 26: Jesus Heals the Centurion’s Servant.” May 2, 2010.

Gilbert and Matviuk. “Empirical Research: The Symbiotic Nature of the Leader-Follower Relationship and It’s Impact on Organizational Effectiveness.” Academic Leadership. The Online Journal. Vol 6: Iss 4 (October 9, 2008). http://www.academicleadership.org/emprical_research/The_Symbiotic_Nature_of_the_Leadership-Follower_relationship_and_its_impact_on_Organizational_Effectiveness_printer.html (accessed June 20, 2010).

Hackman, Michael Z. and Craig E. Johnson. Leadership A Communication Perspective. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, Inc., 2000.

Holy Bible: The New King James Version. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1988.

Northouse, Peter. Leadership, Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 2001.

Pitron, John. “Followership is Leadership: The Leadership-Exemplary Followership Exchange Model.” Version 8. (August 16, 2008). http://knol.google.com/k/dr-john-pitron/followership-is-leadership/12nb17zejmb1w/2 (accessed May 16, 2010).

Robbins, Vernon K. Exploring the Texture of Texts. A Guide to Socio-Rhetorical Interpretation. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, 1996.

Roman Colosseum. The Role of the Roman Centurion. http://www.roman-colosseum.info/roman-arm/roman-centurion.html (accessed on June 16, 2010).

“The Four-Fold Gospel – Healing the Centurions Servant.” Bible Study Tools. http://www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/the-fourfold-gospel/be-sections/healing-the-centurions-servant.html (accessed June 15, 2010).

Wilson, Ralph F. A Man with Authority (Luke 7:1-10). http://www.jesuswalk.com/lessons/7_1-10.htm (accessed June 15, 2010).

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